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Common HTML & CSS

Start here to get your site going in a good direction. Rely on headers and markup to help your visitors and search engines find what they are looking for on your site.

Headings

All HTML headings, <h1> through <h6>, are available. .h1 through .h6 classes are also available, for when you want to match the font styling of a heading but still want your text to be displayed inline.

h2. Heading

Bold 31px

H3. HEADING

Bold uppercase 18px

h4. Heading

Bold 18px
h5. Heading
Bold 13px
h6. Heading
Bold 12px

<h2>h2. Heading</h2>
<h3>h3. Heading</h3>
<h4>h4. Heading</h4>
<h5>h5. Heading</h5>
<h6>h6. Heading</h6>

Create lighter, secondary text in any heading with a generic <small> tag or the .small class.

h2. Heading Secondary text

H3. HEADING SECONDARY TEXT

h4. Heading Secondary text

h5. Heading Secondary text
h6. Heading Secondary text

<h2>h2. Heading <small>Secondary text</small></h2>
<h3>h3. Heading <small>Secondary text</small></h3>
<h4>h4. Heading <small>Secondary text</small></h4>
<h5>h5. Heading <small>Secondary text</small></h5>
<h6>h6. Heading <small>Secondary text</small></h6>

Body copy

The global default font-size is 13px, with a line-height of 1.692. This is applied to the <body> and all paragraphs. In addition, <p> (paragraphs) receive a bottom margin of half their computed line-height (11px by default).

Nullam quis risus eget urna mollis ornare vel eu leo. Cum sociis natoque penatibus et magnis dis parturient montes, nascetur ridiculus mus. Nullam id dolor id nibh ultricies vehicula.

Cum sociis natoque penatibus et magnis dis parturient montes, nascetur ridiculus mus. Donec ullamcorper nulla non metus auctor fringilla. Duis mollis, est non commodo luctus, nisi erat porttitor ligula, eget lacinia odio sem nec elit. Donec ullamcorper nulla non metus auctor fringilla.

Maecenas sed diam eget risus varius blandit sit amet non magna. Donec id elit non mi porta gravida at eget metus. Duis mollis, est non commodo luctus, nisi erat porttitor ligula, eget lacinia odio sem nec elit.

<p>...</p>

Lead body copy

Make a paragraph stand out by adding .lead.

Vivamus sagittis lacus vel augue laoreet rutrum faucibus dolor auctor. Duis mollis, est non commodo luctus.

<p class="lead">...</p>

Emphasis

Make use of HTML’s default emphasis tags with lightweight styles.

Small text

For de-emphasizing inline or blocks of text, use the <small> tag to set text at 85% the size of the parent. Heading elements receive their own font-size for nested <small> elements.

You may alternatively use an inline element with .small in place of any <small>.

This line of text is meant to be treated as fine print.

<small>This line of text is meant to be treated as fine print.</small>
Bold

For emphasizing a snippet of text with a heavier font-weight.

The following snippet of text is rendered as bold text.

<strong>rendered as bold text</strong>
Italics

For emphasizing a snippet of text with italics.

The following snippet of text is rendered as italicized text.

<em>rendered as italicized text</em>

Alternate elements

Feel free to use <b> and <i> in HTML5. <b> is meant to highlight words or phrases without conveying additional importance while <i> is mostly for voice, technical terms, etc.

Alignment classes

Easily realign text to components with text alignment classes.

Left aligned text.

Center aligned text.

Right aligned text.

Justified text.


<p class="text-left">Left aligned text.</p>
<p class="text-center">Center aligned text.</p>
<p class="text-right">Right aligned text.</p>
<p class="text-justify">Justified text.</p>

Abbreviations

Stylized implementation of HTML’s <abbr> element for abbreviations and acronyms to show the expanded version on hover. Abbreviations with a title attribute have a light dotted bottom border and a help cursor on hover, providing additional context on hover.

Basic abbreviation

For expanded text on long hover of an abbreviation, include the title attribute with the <abbr> element.

An abbreviation of the word attribute is attr.

<abbr title="attribute">attr</abbr>
Initialism

Add .initialism to an abbreviation for a slightly smaller font-size.

HTML is the best thing since sliced bread.

<abbr title="HyperText Markup Language" class="initialism">HTML</abbr>

Addresses

Present contact information for the nearest ancestor or the entire body of work. Preserve formatting by ending all lines with <br>.

The addresses below also use meaningful markup with microformats.

Department of XYZ
Address: 700 W Jefferson St, Boise, ID 83702
Mailing Address: PO Box 83702-0000, Boise, ID 83702
Phone:
Fax: (208) 123-4568

<div itemscope="" itemtype="http://schema.org/GovernmentOrganization">
<address itemprop="address" itemscope="" itemtype="http://schema.org/PostalAddress">
<strong><span itemprop="legalName">Department of XYZ</span></strong><br>
Address: <span itemprop="streetAddress">700 W Jefferson St</span>, <spanitemprop="addressLocality">Boise,</span> <span itemprop="addressRegion">ID</span> <span itemprop="postalCode">83702</span><br>
Mailing Address: <span itemprop="postOfficeBoxNumber">PO Box 83702-0000</span><spanitemprop="addressLocality"> Boise</span>, <span itemprop="addressRegion">ID</span><span itemprop="postalCode">83702-0000</span><br>
Phone: <span itemprop="telephone"><button type="button" class="btn btn-phone btn-sm">(208) 123-4567</button></span><br>
Fax: <span itemprop="faxNumber">(208) 123-4568</span></address></div>
<div itemscope="" itemtype="http://schema.org/GovernmentOrganization"><address itemprop="ContactPoint" itemscope="" itemtype="http://schema.org/ContactPoint"><strong><span itemprop="employee">Full Name</span></strong><br> <a href="mailto:#"><span itemprop="email">first.last@example.com</span></a></address></div>

Blockquotes

For quoting blocks of content from another source within your document.

Default blockquote

Wrap <blockquote> around any HTML as the quote. For straight quotes, we recommend a <p>.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Integer posuere erat a ante.

<blockquote><p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Integer erat a ante.</p></blockquote>
Blockquote options

Style and content changes for simple variations on a standard <blockquote>.

Naming a source

Add a <footer> for identifying the source. Wrap the name of the source work in <cite>.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Integer posuere erat a ante.

Someone famous in Source Title
<blockquote>
<p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur elit. Integer posuere erat a ante.</p>
<footer>Someone famous in <cite title="Source Title">Source Title</cite></footer></blockquote>
Alternate displays

Add .blockquote-reverse for a blockquote with right-aligned content.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Integer posuere erat a ante.

Someone famous in Source Title
<blockquote class="blockquote-reverse">...</blockquote>

Lists

Unordered

A list of items in which the order does not explicitly matter.

  • Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet
  • Consectetur adipiscing elit
  • Integer molestie lorem at massa
  • Facilisis in pretium nisl aliquet
  • Nulla volutpat aliquam velit
    • Phasellus iaculis neque
    • Purus sodales ultricies
    • Vestibulum laoreet porttitor sem
    • Ac tristique libero volutpat at
  • Faucibus porta lacus fringilla vel
  • Aenean sit amet erat nunc
  • Eget porttitor lorem
<ul><li>...</li></ul>
Ordered

A list of items in which the order does explicitly matter.

  1. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet
  2. Consectetur adipiscing elit
  3. Integer molestie lorem at massa
  4. Facilisis in pretium nisl aliquet
  5. Nulla volutpat aliquam velit
  6. Faucibus porta lacus fringilla vel
  7. Aenean sit amet erat nunc
  8. Eget porttitor lorem
<ol><li>...</li></ol>
Unstyled

Remove the default list-style and left margin on list items (immediate children only). This only applies to immediate children list items, meaning you will need to add the class for any nested lists as well.

  • Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet
  • Consectetur adipiscing elit
  • Integer molestie lorem at massa
  • Facilisis in pretium nisl aliquet
  • Nulla volutpat aliquam velit
    • Phasellus iaculis neque
    • Purus sodales ultricies
    • Vestibulum laoreet porttitor sem
    • Ac tristique libero volutpat at
  • Faucibus porta lacus fringilla vel
  • Aenean sit amet erat nunc
  • Eget porttitor lorem
<ul class="list-unstyled"><li>...</li></ul>
Inline

Place all list items on a single line with display: inline-block; and some light padding.

  • Lorem ipsum
  • Phasellus iaculis
  • Nulla volutpat
<ul class="list-inline"><li>...</li></ul>
Description

A list of terms with their associated descriptions.

Description lists
A description list is perfect for defining terms.
Euismod
Vestibulum id ligula porta felis euismod semper eget lacinia odio sem nec elit.
Donec id elit non mi porta gravida at eget metus.
Malesuada porta
Etiam porta sem malesuada magna mollis euismod.
<dl><dt>...</dt>
<dd>...</dd></dl>
Horizontal description

Make terms and descriptions in <dl> line up side-by-side. Starts off stacked like default <dl>s, but when the navbar expands, so do these.

Description lists
A description list is perfect for defining terms.
Euismod
Vestibulum id ligula porta felis euismod semper eget lacinia odio sem nec elit.
Donec id elit non mi porta gravida at eget metus.
Malesuada porta
Etiam porta sem malesuada magna mollis euismod.
Felis euismod semper eget lacinia
Fusce dapibus, tellus ac cursus commodo, tortor mauris condimentum nibh, ut fermentum massa justo sit amet risus.
<dl class="dl-horizontal"><dt>...</dt>
<dd>...</dd></dl>

Auto-truncating

Horizontal description lists will truncate terms that are too long to fit in the left column with text-overflow. In narrower viewports, they will change to the default stacked layout.

Basic example

For basic styling—light padding and only horizontal dividers—add the base class .table to any <table>. It may seem super redundant, but given the widespread use of tables for other plugins like calendars and date pickers, we’ve opted to isolate our custom table styles.

# First Name Last Name Username
1 Mark Otto @mdo
2 Jacob Thornton @fat
3 Larry the Bird @twitter
<table class="table">
...
</table>

Accessibility

Marking Up Data Tables

The purpose of data tables is to present tabular information in a grid, and to have column or rows that show the meaning of the information in the grid. Sighted users can visually scan a table. They can quickly make visual associations between data in the table and their appropriate row and/or column headers. Someone that cannot see the table cannot make these visual associations, so proper markup must be used to make a programmatic association between elements within the table. When the proper HTML markup is in place, users of screen readers can navigate through data tables one cell at a time, and they will hear the column and row headers spoken to them.

Identify Row and Column Headers

The scope attribute tells the browser and screen reader that everything within a column that is associated to the header with scope="col" in that column, and that a cell with scope="row" is a header for all cells in that row.

All <th> elements should generally always have a scope attribute. While screen readers may correctly guess whether a header is a column header or a row header based on the table layout, assigning a scope makes this unambiguous.

# First Name Last Name Username
1 Mark Otto @mdo
2 Jacob Thornton @fat
3 Larry the Bird @twitter
<table class="table"><thead>
<tr>
<th scope="col">#</th>
<th scope="col">First Name</th>
<th scope="col">Last Name</th>
<th scope="col">Username</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr>
<th scope="row">1</th>
<td>Mark</td>
<td>Otto1</td>
<td>@mdo</td></tr><tr>
<th scope="row">2</th>
<td>Jacob</td>
<td>Thornton</td>
<td>@fat</td></tr><tr><th scope="row">3</th>
<td>Larry</td>
<td>the Bird</td>
<td>@twitter</td></tr></tbody></table>

Want to learn more?

For more information on accessibility, go to webaim.org.

Striped rows

Use .table-striped to add zebra-striping to any table row within the <tbody>.

Cross-browser compatibility

Striped tables are styled via the :nth-child CSS selector, which is not available in Internet Explorer 8.

# First Name Last Name Username
1 Mark Otto @mdo
2 Jacob Thornton @fat
3 Larry the Bird @twitter
<table class="table table-striped">
...
</table>

Bordered table

Add .table-bordered for borders on all sides of the table and cells.

# First Name Last Name Username
1 Mark Otto @mdo
Mark Otto @TwBootstrap
2 Jacob Thornton @fat
3 Larry the Bird @twitter
<table class="table table-bordered">
...
</table>

Hover rows

Add .table-hover to enable a hover state on table rows within a <tbody>.

# First Name Last Name Username
1 Mark Otto @mdo
2 Jacob Thornton @fat
3 Larry the Bird @twitter
<table class="table table-hover">
...
</table>

Condensed table

Add .table-condensed to make tables more compact by cutting cell padding in half.

# First Name Last Name Username
1 Mark Otto @mdo
2 Jacob Thornton @fat
3 Larry the Bird @twitter
<table class="table table-condensed">
...
</table>

Contextual classes

Use contextual classes to color table rows or individual cells.

Class Description
.active Applies the hover color to a particular row or cell
.success Indicates a successful or positive action
.info Indicates a neutral informative change or action
.warning Indicates a warning that might need attention
.danger Indicates a dangerous or potentially negative action
# Column heading Column heading Column heading
1 Column content Column content Column content
2 Column content Column content Column content
3 Column content Column content Column content
4 Column content Column content Column content
5 Column content Column content Column content
6 Column content Column content Column content
7 Column content Column content Column content
8 Column content Column content Column content
9 Column content Column content Column content
<!-- On rows -->
<tr class="active">...</tr>
<tr class="success">...</tr>
<tr class="warning">...</tr>
<tr class="danger">...</tr>
<tr class="info">...</tr>
<!-- On cells (`td` or `th`) -->
<tr><td class="active">...</td>
<td class="success">...</td>
<td class="warning">...</td>
<td class="danger">...</td>
<td class="info">...</td></tr>

Responsive tables

Create responsive tables by wrapping any .table in .table-responsive to make them scroll horizontally on small devices (under 768px). When viewing on anything larger than 768px wide, you will not see any difference in these tables.

Firefox and fieldsets

Firefox has some awkward fieldset styling involving width that interferes with the responsive table. This cannot be overriden without a Firefox-specific hack that we don’t provide in Bootstrap:

@-moz-document url-prefix() {
fieldset { display: table-cell; }
}

For more information, read this Stack Overflow answer.

# Table heading Table heading Table heading Table heading Table heading Table heading
1 Table cell Table cell Table cell Table cell Table cell Table cell
2 Table cell Table cell Table cell Table cell Table cell Table cell
3 Table cell Table cell Table cell Table cell Table cell Table cell
# Table heading Table heading Table heading Table heading Table heading Table heading
1 Table cell Table cell Table cell Table cell Table cell Table cell
2 Table cell Table cell Table cell Table cell Table cell Table cell
3 Table cell Table cell Table cell Table cell Table cell Table cell
<div class="table-responsive"><tableclass="table">
...
</table></div>

Options

Use any of the available button classes to quickly create a styled button.

<!-- Standard button -->
<button type="button" class="btn btn-default">Default</button>

<!-- Provides extra visual weight and identifies the primary action in a set of buttons -->
<button type="button" class="btn btn-primary">Primary</button>

<!-- Indicates a successful or positive action -->
<button type="button" class="btn btn-success">Success</button>

<!-- Contextual button for informational alert messages -->
<button type="button" class="btn btn-info">Info</button>

<!-- Indicates caution should be taken with this action -->
<button type="button" class="btn btn-warning">Warning</button>

<!-- Indicates a dangerous or potentially negative action -->
<button type="button" class="btn btn-danger">Danger</button>

<!-- Deemphasize a button by making it look like a link while maintaining button behavior -->
<button type="button" class="btn btn-link">Link</button>

Sizes

Fancy larger or smaller buttons? Add .btn-lg, .btn-sm, or .btn-xs for additional sizes.

<p>
<button type="button" class="btn btn-primary btn-lg">Large button</button>
<button type="button" class="btn btn-default btn-lg">Large button</button>
</p>
<p>
<button type="button" class="btn btn-primary">Default button</button>
<button type="button" class="btn btn-default">Default button</button>
</p>
<p>
<button type="button" class="btn btn-primary btn-sm">Small button</button>
<button type="button" class="btn btn-default btn-sm">Small button</button>
</p>
<p>
<button type="button" class="btn btn-primary btn-xs">Extra small button</button>
<button type="button" class="btn btn-default btn-xs">Extra small button</button>
</p>

Create block level buttons—those that span the full width of a parent— by adding .btn-block.

<button type="button" class="btn btn-primary btn-lg btn-block">Block level button</button>
<button type="button" class="btn btn-default btn-lg btn-block">Block level button</button>

Button tags

Use the button classes on an <a>, <button>, or <input> element.

Link
<a class="btn btn-default" href="#" role="button">Link</a>
<button class="btn btn-default" type="submit">Button</button>
<input class="btn btn-default" type="button" value="Input">
<input class="btn btn-default" type="submit" value="Submit">

Cross-browser rendering

As a best practice, we highly recommend using the <button> element whenever possible to ensure matching cross-browser rendering.

Among other things, there’s a bug in Firefox <30 that prevents us from setting the line-height of <input>-based buttons, causing them to not exactly match the height of other buttons on Firefox.

Responsive images

Images in Bootstrap 3 can be made responsive-friendly via the addition of the .img-responsive class. This applies max-width: 100%; and height: auto; to the image so that it scales nicely to the parent element.

<img src="..." class="img-responsive" alt="Responsive image">

Image shapes

Add classes to an <img> element to easily style images in any project.

Cross-browser compatibility

Keep in mind that Internet Explorer 8 lacks support for rounded corners.

140x140 140x140 140x140
<img src="..." alt="..." class="img-rounded">
<img src="..." alt="..." class="img-circle">
<img src="..." alt="..." class="img-thumbnail">

Screen reader and keyboard navigation content

There are occasional instances where content should be made available to screen reader users, but hidden from sighted users. In most cases, if content (particularly content that provides functionality or interactivity) is important enough to provide to screen reader users, it should probably be made available to all users. Cases where verbose cues or instructions are provided only for screen reader users are most likely a reflection of poor design and accessibility. However, there are a few cases where information is apparent visually, but may not be apparent to screen reader users. In these cases, it may be appropriate to mark-up content in a way that it is read by a screen reader, but invisible to sighted users.

Hide an element to all devices except screen readers with .sr-only. Combine .sr-only with .sr-only-focusable to show the element again when it’s focused (e.g. by a keyboard-only user).

<a class="sr-only sr-only-focusable" href="#content">Skip to main content</a>

Want to learn more about accessibility?

Visit WebAim.org for more information.

Contextual colors

Convey meaning through color with a handful of emphasis utility classes. These may also be applied to links and will darken on hover just like our default link styles.

Fusce dapibus, tellus ac cursus commodo, tortor mauris nibh.

Nullam id dolor id nibh ultricies vehicula ut id elit.

Duis mollis, est non commodo luctus, nisi erat porttitor ligula.

Maecenas sed diam eget risus varius blandit sit amet non magna.

Etiam porta sem malesuada magna mollis euismod.

Donec ullamcorper nulla non metus auctor fringilla.

<p class="text-muted">...</p>
<p class="text-primary">...</p>
<p class="text-success">...</p>
<p class="text-info">...</p>
<p class="text-warning">...</p>
<p class="text-danger">...</p>

Dealing with specificity

Sometimes emphasis classes cannot be applied due to the specificity of another selector. In most cases, a sufficient workaround is to wrap your text in a <span> with the class.

Contextual backgrounds

Similar to the contextual text color classes, easily set the background of an element to any contextual class. Anchor components will darken on hover, just like the text classes.

Nullam id dolor id nibh ultricies vehicula ut id elit.

Duis mollis, est non commodo luctus, nisi erat porttitor ligula.

Maecenas sed diam eget risus varius blandit sit amet non magna.

Etiam porta sem malesuada magna mollis euismod.

Donec ullamcorper nulla non metus auctor fringilla.

<p class="bg-primary">...</p>
<p class="bg-success">...</p>
<p class="bg-info">...</p>
<p class="bg-warning">...</p>
<p class="bg-danger">...</p>

Dealing with specificity

Sometimes contextual background classes cannot be applied due to the specificity of another selector. In some cases, a sufficient workaround is to wrap your element’s content in a <div> with the class.

Quick floats

Float an element to the left or right with a class. !important is included to avoid specificity issues.

<div class="pull-left">...</div>
<div class="pull-right">...</div>
// Classes
.pull-left {
float: left !important;
}
.pull-right {
float: right !important;
}

Not for use in navbars

To align components in navbars with utility classes, use .navbar-left or .navbar-right instead. See the navbar docs for details.

Center content blocks

Set an element to display: block and center via margin.

<div class="center-block">...</div>
// Classes
.center-block {
display: block;
margin-left: auto;
margin-right: auto;
}

Clearfix

Easily clear floats by adding .clearfix to the parent element. Utilizes the micro clearfix as popularized by Nicolas Gallagher.

<!-- Usage as a class -->
<div class="clearfix">...</div>